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Essays dedicated to Gertrud Seidmann Oxford, , pp.

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Tsetskhladze, A. Prag and A. Snodgrass, eds. Kagan] Catalogue entry no. Vassilaki, ed. Stiegemann, ed. Das Licht aus dem Osten Exhibition catalogue, Mainz, , pp. Meadows and U. Wartenberg, eds. IX London, , pp. Arslan and A. Michael Padgett, ed. Entwistle, ed. VI, ; pp. VI, ; p. VI, ; and p. Ryan, eds. AD London, , pp. Spier Book reviews: Numismatic Chronicle , pp.

I am very much indebted to Dr. Fletcher for his enterprise in this matter. Carritt's opinion was given to John Fletcher.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal: Volume 14/1986

Professor Begemann's suggestion was made to me in January of when he was a guest scholar at the Getty Museum, and his discussions with me on this matter have been very rewarding. Figure 5. Jan Steen, The Rederijkers. Brussels, H. Stokvis collection. It does not have a motto, but the mottos were often put on the frame. Others exist with a rebus as a theme. Most large- and middle-sized Flemish and Dutch towns had chambers of rhetoric, sometimes more than one Antwerp, for instance, had three and all of them produced such blazons. Moreover, they held festivals at which representatives of many groups gathered together.

The most famous of these, in , included fourteen different groups, and special blazons were made for the occasion.

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Normally a blazon was simply hung by its corner on a wall while the chamber was in session. The well-known painting by Jan Steen from the next century shows some drunken rhetoricians with the blazon prominently displayed in the foreground fig.

Because they were considered heraldic devices and prominently shown, the groups may have modernized their blazons from time to time regularly producing new versions in the more current taste, and discarding the old ones. Whatever the reason for their relative rarity now, they were clearly considered valuable at the time they were painted.

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The Rederijker groups were also significant for the art of their time because of their close association with the artists' guilds. In Antwerp the guild known as De Violieren included both artists and rhetoricians. Many well-known painters were also famous as performers, and no doubt this contributed to the quality of the blazons. The Getty panel, unfortunately, does not precisely fit the pattern of other blazons.

For one thing, it would be the only such blazon with an Italian inscription. Antwerp cat. It is discussed briefly in P. Others are discussed in Aug.

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There is a particularly good reproduction. Emmanuel de Witte, Church Interior. Miller, Jr. Fund, not, perhaps, exclude it, but since the Rederijkers were very much involved in the use of their own language as their dramatic medium, the appearance of an Italian motto seems definitely out of place. Moreover, the motives found in the majority of blazons are religious in nature. This is not true in all cases, especially those done as a rebus where mythological figures are utilized at times; but most often the mottos reflect a pious sentiment very much at odds with the Petrarchian phrase found here.

At the same time, it must be emphasized that Petrarch was an important figure for the Rederijkers who considered him the founder of modern poetry, the man who most brought about the Renaissance in letters, and his works were brought out in a variety of editions in the North. His name is often found in literary works published during the fifteenth and especially the sixteenth centuries in the Netherlands. It would be completely in character for the Rederijkers to pay him homage. The motto seems somewhat too personal to be that of a group.

Indeed, the reflexive verb menarsi is used in the first person, me mena; and this seems to exclude its use as a club slogan. The Getty panel seems more likely to have been the personal sentiment of someone very much aware of Italian culture and literature, perhaps one of many writers in the Netherlands or England who emulated Petrarch and would have been proud to feature one of his phrases on his blazon. It seems likely that the Getty panel had a heraldic function. The motto and the lozenge shape are enough to allow us at least this assumption. The lozenge shape seems to have traditionally served for heraldic devices, like the hatchment in England, the origin of which comes from the continent.

One need only recall the use of lozenge-shaped panels in Dutch churches where they grace the pillars in so many paintings of church interiors fig. However, it is a mistake to assume that every lozengeshaped panel is heraldic in character. Two pictures by Goltzius, one depicting the Dying Adonis Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum and the other showing the figure of Christ Crowned with Thorns in the Marienkirche in Ulzen in Germany are enough to show that these panels were. We simply do not know why Goltzius painted these pictures to be hung from the corner.

The panel in Ulzen may simply have been meant to hang from a pillar, since it is difficult to have more than one point on a round column from which to hang the painting. But certainly the Dying Adonis does not come from a church. In the inventory of the panel was already an anonymous work, and it seems to have remained anonymous after that. The attribution to the circle of Giulio died implies that the compilers of the sale thought it was to be dated during the first half of the sixteenth century, but since the painting clearly has nothing to do with Giulio, this inference is of little value.

At the time of the sale, however, a series of people, mostly dealers, thought of Hans Holbein as a possibility, and attention has centered on this artist since that time. The prefrom prints and do not exist in panel form. For a recent overview of the subject of the Rederijkers festivals, see E.

The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal: Volume 15/1987

He also gives extensive bibliography. According to Dr. Earl of Powis collection. Subsequently the first two had serious doubts about this idea, and only Carritt continued to believe in it. Indeed, the suggestions made during the following year while the painting was studied by its new owners ranged very late into the century to include even such artists as Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger active died It must be admitted that the theme of the Getty panel is just as well suited to the taste of the second half of the sixteenth century as to the first.

It coincides perfectly with the allegories fashionable in Elizabethan England and also in the Lowlands of the same period. One must only recall the allegories described by Van Mander that were painted by Cornelis Ketel now all lost or the paintings and miniatures from the court of James I and even Henry Prince of Wales. Indeed, the famous melancholy picture of Edward Herbert lying by a stream painted by Isaac Oliver fig. Rowlands, 'Terminus.

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Hans Holbein the Younger, Erasmus' Terminus. Sherman E. Lee in memory of Milton S. And yet the Getty panel is not as "mannered" as the work of any of the artists from the later part of the century. The anatomy is not as "pinched" as the work of Milliard or Oliver.

The style is less refined in character. Its mannerisms are much more modest in nature, pointing to a time when the elaboration of classical motifs into something we now call anti-classical had not yet begun in earnest.